Progress on "PJIT 2.0" has gone well so far and we're now into our third beta release. Executing code is still problematic when the bus timing is still not 100%, but we're getting there. Users are welcome to download the binary and play around, we'd be absolutely thrilled if anyone could play around with the GPMC settings and let us know what works and what doesn't.
You're welcome to program this either with a 3.3V UART or JTAG connection using either the binary here or the ELF file here respectively. When using UART, set your terminal program to 115,200 baud and 8N1 parity. When you first connect, you should see a steady stream of 'C' characters at which point you can XMODEM transfer the binary into RAM. It should start immediately.
Flashing the Firmware
Among the various options is to program the firmware to SPI Flash. I don't recommend doing this yet.
Recovering the Flash
If you didn't listen and anything bad happens, you should be able to recover by rebooting the system while holding the Escape key in the terminal window. You should see a message saying that flash has been erased and you'll be back to the repeating 'C'.
Upon boot, you should see the PJIT banner as well as some boot up noise. The firmware includes both the bootloader and the 68K emulator so there is no second-stage required.
____ ______________ ______ | | \__ ___/ \ __ \ | | | | | | |_) )\__| | | | | | __/\________|___| |____| |__| [BOOT] Build Version, v0.3, Date Apr 18 2023, Time 14:00:26 [I2C0] Scanning bus.. [I2C0] EEPROM Detected ($50) [I2C0] Settings loaded, last boot was good [I2C0] GreenPAK Detected ($08~$0B) [I2C0] GreenPAK Protection Bits: $00 $00 $00 [I2C0] GreenPAK good [I2C0] PMIC ID: TPS65217C [I2C0] PMIC DCDC voltage: 1.35 [I2C0] Nitro mode enabled [CLK7] Main bus clock measured at 7.158 [GPMC] Trimming Core PLL to: 966 [GPMC] SYNC VIOLATION: t->CSOFFTIME >= (t->ACCESSTIME+1) [BOOT] Initializing cache [BOOT] Initializing opcode tables [BOOT] Image 402F0400 ~ 40302560 (74080 bytes) [BOOT] Stack 403081E5 ~ 4030FFF8 (32275 bytes) [I2C0] Saving and verifying settings (CRC=823A) [BOOT] Completed in 0.19795 seconds MENU ---- TESTS: 1. Quick-test DDR memory 2. Dump first 4K of SPI Flash 3. Quick-test SPI flash 4. Test GPMC 5. Test printf 6. Run Native BogoMIPS test 7. Run PJIT BogoMIPS test SETUP: J. Jump to PJIT C. Set E Clock Divider R. Run MCL68K S. Manage SPI Flash E. Manage EEPROM Config G. Manage GreenPAK H. Print help (this) X. Reboot Ready ] █
At the moment, we're using the MCL68k emulator due to it's rather terse size, but this is only an interim fix while we determine the best settings for the bus timing. So the 'J' option will not work.
The user can now set up the EEPROM settings used to configure Buffee at boot. These will also be alterable on the fly – this is only setting the state of the CPU during boot. You can get there by entering 'E' and then '3' to display and change EEPROM settings. The default options look like this:
] 3 Config: A. CPU: B. Clock: 7.158 MHz C. I$: Enabled D. I$ Mask: 0000 E. D$: Enabled F. D$ Mask: 0000 G. MAPROM Enabled 000000~07FFFF POST: H. Long Mem Test Disabled I. GreenPAK Test Enabled J. Bus Clock Test Enabled K. Automap Enabled L. MCU CLK: 1000 M. PMIC Voltage: 1.35 PJIT Cache: N. Block Size: 16384 bytes O. Block Count: 1 Cache Size: 16 kB X. Return to previous menu
We'll also be adding in options to overclock the 6800 bus which pushes the CIAs to a 9-cycle period instead of 10. We did try other values, but at 8-cycles, they would only respond to every-other-access and were thus quite a bit slower. Still, a 10% speed up on the slowest part of most 68000 machines isn't bad.
You can save these, reset to defaults, and when you reboot, they should be automatically applied. I would strongly not recommend trying to overclock Buffee AND run from Flash incase your settings brick Buffee. They shouldn't, but caveat emptor.
The most important option right now is 4. Test GPMC, which provides you with a sub menu.
1. Endian test 2. Dump first 16 words of ROM 3. ROM speed test 4. CIA speed test 5. Agnus read/write 6. CIA read/write 7. Chip RAM read/write A. Perform all tests and exit D. Set GPMC timing to default T. Set GPMC timing X. Exit to main menu ] █
Running all the tests should show something like this when it's working:
[GPMC] Endian Check: exec 34.2 (28 Oct 1987) [GPMC] Bytes NOT swapped [GPMC] Read words (LE:BE) [GMPC] $00000000: 1111:1111 f94e:4ef9 fc00:00fc d200:00d2 [GMPC] $00000008: 0000:0000 ffff:ffff 2200:0022 0500:0005 [GMPC] $00000010: 2200:0022 0200:0002 ffff:ffff ffff:ffff [GMPC] $00000018: 7865:6578 6365:6563 3320:2033 2e34:342e [GPMC] Test passed and matches [GPMC] Performing benchmark with ROM [GPMC] Read 1048576 words in 0.78 s, expecting 0.559s [GPMC] Read ROM at 2.55 MB/s, expecting 3.58MB/s [GPMC] Test passed [GPMC] Performing benchmark with CIA [GPMC] Read 262144 words in 0.36 s, expecting 0.358 s [GPMC] Read CIA at 699.10 kB/s, expecting 716kB/s [GPMC] Test passed [GPMC] DeniseID: 0xFFFF (OCS) [GPMC] JOYxDAT Check: 0xa2a3 0xa2a3 (6 avg bit errors) [GPMC] Test passed [GPMC] JOYxDAT Check: 0x5253 0x5050 (5 avg bit errors) [GPMC] Test passed [GPMC] CIAA Read ok (03 == 03) [GPMC] CIAA Read ok (00 == 00) [GPMC] CIAA Timer test (should be 180 ticks) [GPMC] CIAA timer A Start: 0x00000000 [GPMC] CIAA timer A End: 0x000000b4 [GPMC] CIAA timer A Elapsed: 0 [GPMC] Test passed [GPMC] Performing RAM test [GMPC] $00020000: 0000 0101 0202 0303 0404 0505 0606 0707 [GMPC] $00020008: 0808 0909 0a0a 0b0b 0c0c 0d0d 0e0e 0f0f [GMPC] $00020010: 1010 1111 1212 1313 1414 1515 1616 1717 [GMPC] $00020018: 1818 1919 1a1a 1b1b 1c1c 1d1d 1e1e 1f1f [GMPC] $00020020: 2020 2121 2222 2323 2424 2525 2626 2727 [GMPC] $00020028: 2828 2929 2a2a 2b2b 2c2c 2d2d 2e2e 2f2f [GMPC] $00020030: 3030 3131 3232 3333 3434 3535 3636 3737 [GMPC] $00020038: 3838 3939 3a3a 3b3b 3c3c 3d3d 3e3e 3f3f [GMPC] $00020040: 4040 4141 4242 4343 4444 4545 4646 4747 [GMPC] $00020048: 4848 4949 4a4a 4b4b 4c4c 4d4d 4e4e 4f4f [GMPC] $00020050: 5050 5151 5252 5353 5454 5555 5656 5757 [GMPC] $00020058: 5858 5959 5a5a 5b5b 5c5c 5d5d 5e5e 5f5f [GMPC] $00020060: 6060 6161 6262 6363 6464 6565 6666 6767 [GMPC] $00020068: 6868 6969 6a6a 6b6b 6c6c 6d6d 6e6e 6f6f [GMPC] $00020070: 7070 7171 7272 7373 7474 7575 7676 7777 [GMPC] $00020078: 7878 7979 7a7a 7b7b 7c7c 7d7d 7e7e 7f7f [GMPC] $00020080: 8080 8181 8282 8383 8484 8585 8686 8787 [GMPC] $00020088: 8888 8989 8a8a 8b8b 8c8c 8d8d 8e8e 8f8f [GMPC] $00020090: 9090 9191 9292 9393 9494 9595 9696 9797 [GMPC] $00020098: 9898 9999 9a9a 9b9b 9c9c 9d9d 9e9e 9f9f [GMPC] $000200A0: a0a0 a1a1 a2a2 a3a3 a4a4 a5a5 a6a6 a7a7 [GMPC] $000200A8: a8a8 a9a9 aaaa abab acac adad aeae afaf [GMPC] $000200B0: b0b0 b1b1 b2b2 b3b3 b4b4 b5b5 b6b6 b7b7 [GMPC] $000200B8: b8b8 b9b9 baba bbbb bcbc bdbd bebe bfbf [GMPC] $000200C0: c0c0 c1c1 c2c2 c3c3 c4c4 c5c5 c6c6 c7c7 [GPMC] Test passed, 0 errors, 0.0% [GPMC] 7 of 7 tests passed
Right now, most commonly, either the RAM or CIA tests fail. This is due to a timing issue we haven't quite corrected yet. We can now use the 'T' option to change the GPMC timing on the fly, to try and dial in a better setting. Right now, the sync behaviour with DTACK and S4 state is controlled by the GreenPAK and isn't adjustable. We may have to change that if we're not able to find good settings.
When changing the timing, we'll be preseted with a timing diagram, the actualy numeric values and then a prompt to change every one. You can simply press enter to accept the default value in brackets. When you are done, it will draw you another cute timing diagram and you can then run more tests.
] t Timing Diagram: 11111111112222222 012345678901234567890123456 * Access ___ _ |_____________________| AS * S4 Sync |_________________________| DS (Read) _____ |____________________| DS (Write) [GPMC] Cycle Time: 27 [GPMC] Access Time: 25 [GPMC] nCS Timing (ON/OFF): 3/25 [GPMC] nRE Timing (ON/OFF): 0/26 [GPMC] nWE Timing (ON/OFF): 5/26 Set Cycle Time (0-31) : Set Access Time (0-31) : 21 Set AS On-Time (0-15) [ 3]: Set AS Off-Time (0-31) : Set Read On-Time (0-15) [ 0]: Set Read Off-Time (0-31) : Set Write On-Time (0-15) [ 5]: 7 Set Write Off-Time (0-31) : Timing Diagram: 11111111112222222 012345678901234567890123456 * Access ___ _ |_____________________| AS * S4 Sync |_________________________| DS (Read) _______ |__________________| DS (Write)
We Need You!
This is where the testing part comes in. We need to find more reliable timing parameters – 99% just doesn't cut it. We're working hard on this, but we're welcome to any Beta Buffee owners out there playing around and seeing what works for them. Is NTSC or PAL more forgiving? What about the 1000 versus 500? All great questions!
Anyway, this is a pretty long post already and I think I'll stop here. Next post we're going to be talking about how to run ARM code directly from 68000 code for when 1000 MIPS isn't enough.